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Everything you need to know about C-GHAZ (1966 Cessna 180H Skywagon C/N 18051614, 1953 De Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter C/N 19) including aircraft data, history and photos

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The line fraction of CGHAZ that was sampled by the crack tip was calculated for 485 HAZ CTOD tests (22 structural steels). These data are statistically analyzed to show that for welds containing LBZs, a low CTOD result becomes more probable if the crack samples more CGHAZ.


CGHAZ due to change of cooling rate can be attributed to the increase of nitrides (TiN, Cr2N, etc). These n itrides in the CGHAZ promote initiation and propagation of brittle cracks. The precipitated Cr 2N nitrides in the grain boundaries decrease impact toughness in the CGHAZ

1. CGHAZ在线翻译. 1. After weld thermal cycle, the shape of remaining particles in simulated CGHAZ changes from irregular shape to cubicle one, the particle number per unit area decreases, and the mean particle size increases. 焊接热循环后,粒子的数量显著减少、平均尺寸增大,残留的粒子变为方形。


The size of CGHAZ does not show larger variations in all the weld specimens considered in this investigation. The grain size of FGHAZ is relative small and grain coarsening happens when activation energy of grain boundary is higher than a critical level. It can be

Stress-relief cracking is a major cause of weld failures in creep-resistant, precipitation-strengthened materials such as ferrite alloy steels, stainless steels, and Ni-based super alloys. Stress-relief cracking occurs primarily in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone of weldments.

In welding, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is the area of base material, either a metal or a thermoplastic, which is not melted but has had its microstructure and properties altered by welding or heat intensive cutting operations. The heat from the welding process and subsequent re-cooling causes this change from the weld interface to the termination of the sensitizing temperature in the base metal.


CoarsegrainHAZ(CGHAZ)の2つの領域に分けて 材料特性を取得した。前述の微小サイズ試験片によ るBMの材料特性と併せて,各領域の応力-ひず み曲線を図7に,切欠き延性および延性の応力多軸 度依存特性を図8に示す。 図8より,WMはBMに比べて延性(切欠き延性


ABSTRACTTo explore the effect of inclusions in the coarse-grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ), four groups were designed using the ‘Al/Ti deoxidised + Nb/V microalloyed’ technical route. The toughness of the CGHAZ of Al–Ti–V–N steel was greatly promoted by the presence of polygonal ferrite (PF) after high heat input rather than the traditionally used acicular ferrite (AF).


Influence of Ti/N ratio on simulated CGHAZ microstructure and toughness in X70 steels Z. X. Zhu*1, M. Marimuthu1, L. Kuzmikova1,H.J.Li1, F. Barbaro1,2, L. Zheng3, M. Z. Bai3 and C. Jones4 Three API 5L X70 steels with different Ti and N contents and otherwise identical chemistry were

Microstructure evolution and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) corrosion behavior in 5wt% NaCl solution at 55°C of X80 pipeline steel reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) have been studied. Results showed that a microstructure gradient in reheated CGHAZ was generated because of the different peak temperatures in the subsequent welding thermal cycle.


cghAz – zone 2 and 3 (Coarse Grain HAZ) – HAZ with coarse grain structure, heated to temperature (1100oC ≤ T max ≤T m), where: T m – steel melting point, FghAz – zone 4 (Fine Grain HAZ) – HAZ with fine grain structure, heated to temperature above A 3 (900 ≤ T max. ≤1100oC), IchAz – zone 5 (Intercritical HAZ) – HAZ heated to


Abstract For the purpose of obtaining the optimal microstructures and mechanical properties of the CGHAZ under high input welding, continuous cooling transformation diagrams of the coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) and the corresponding microstructures were investigated for a E36 class V-N-Ti, V-Ti, and Nb-Ti shipbuilding steels.

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The CGHAZ microstructure over a range of cooling rates was characterized, and corresponding CCT diagrams were constructed. It was found that depending on the cooling rate, martensite, bainite, ferrite and pearlite can form in the CGHAZ of HSLA-65.


CGHAZ is a single phase ferrite with BCC structure and the lattice parameter a =0.2866 nm. Also for the fusion line, it is a single phase ferrite with a BCC structure. Furthermore, micro cracks were also observed at CGHAZ, this is due to the residual stress which is shown in Figure 7 [11]. Passivation treatment of stainless steel after welding

A probabilistic model is derived based on the weakest link theory to evaluate the specimen thickness effect and the size effect of coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) on CTOD toughness values in heat-affected zones (HAZ) of high strength steels.

The CGHAZ of single-pass welded specimens of EN24A and EN24T steel presented a martensitic structure. The CGHAZ microstructure of specimens that were subjected to PWHT at 620 and 675 comprised of carbide precipitates in ferrite. The microstructure of EN24A steel was not altered by PWHT but that of EN24T steel was transformed from tempered

The welded joints are important factors that have an influence on the integrity of the pipeline. The microstructure differences in FGHAZ (fine grain heat affected zone) and CGHAZ (coarse grain heat affected zone) may potentially lead to micro galvanic corrosion reactions. Corrosion resistance to the weld section needs to be analyzed by ICDA (internal corrosion direct assessment), ECDA


affected zone (CGHAZ) at -40 °C. A Gleeble 3800 was used to simulate the CGHAZ, and the fracture toughness was determined by three point bending testing. Inclusions were characterized using FESEM-EDS. It was found that fracture toughness of the steel with coarse nitrides was lower and the

The degenerate pearlite differing from the typical pearlite in carbon steel and martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent formed in the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) have been studied in thermal cycle simulation with Gleeble-2000 thermomechanical simulator.

Three API 5L X70 steels with different Ti and N contents and otherwise identical chemistry were selected to investigate the effect of Ti/N ratio on the toughness in coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ). A Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator was used to simulate the thermal profile of CGHAZ of double submerged arc welding process. The microstructure was examined by optical microscopy


(a) CGHAZ (b) ICCGHAZ Fig.5 SEM micrographs of CGHAZ and ICCGHAZ of ordinary X80 pipeline steels (a) CGHAZ (b) ICCGHAZ Fig.6 SEM micrographs of CGHAZ and ICCGHAZ of X80 EDPS It is the point of the theory of materials phase transformation that the microstructure of CGHAZ is non-equilibrium microstructure of acicular ferrite (AF).


arc welding (FCAW) process. The microstructure formation at CGHAZ was consisting of grain boundary ferrite (GBF), Widmanstatten ferrite (WF) and pearlite (P). Significant grain coarsening was observed at the CGHAZ of all the joints, and it was found that the extent of grain coarsening at CGHAZ has also increased along with the heat input.

If you are involved in the welding industry you are constantly surrounded by all sorts of acronyms. Below is a list of the most commonly used abbreviations in our industry. ABS American Bureau of Shipping AC Alternating current AlSl American Iron and Steel Institute. AL Aluminium AMP Amperes (measure of current) ANSI American National Standard Institute. []


Figure 1-24- LEAP tomographic reconstruction displaying Cu atoms for a)CGHAZ with high heat input b)CGHAZ + 650 oC peak temperature with high heat input, c)CGHAZ with low heat input, and d)CGHAZ+ 650 oC thermal cycle with low heat input

1. CGHAZ forms during initial pass 2. CGHAZ is reheated into intercritical region 3. austenite forms along prior austenite GB 4. new austenite is enriched in carbon 5. cooling results in high C Martensite 6. mixture of ferrite and brittle martensite

Sep 13, 2018 · The thermal cycles of the Coarse Grain Heat Affected Zone (CGHAZ) and Intercritical Reheated Heat Affected Zone (ICRHAZ) of Gas Metal Arc Welds (GMAW) have been reproduced using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator. An upper bainite microstructure was observed in the CGHAZ while a granular bainite forms in the ICRHAZ.

The present study has been carried out to investigate the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) microstructure and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) toughness of grade StE 355 Ti-microalloyed offshore steels. Three parent plates (40-mm thick) were studied, two of which had Ti microalloying with either Nb + V or Nb also present.

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Basic Research of Weld Process and Microstructure Modeling for a Hot-Rolled High Strength Steel Final Report Submitted by Katie Strader, Bin Wang, Prof. Cuixin Chen, Prof. Wei Zhang and Prof. John C. Lippold (CGHAZ), the most critical region in a welded joint.

The post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) cracking susceptibility of a coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) in SA213-T23 (2.25Cr-1.6W steel), used for boiler tubes employed in thermal power plants, was investigated using a Gleeble thermal cycle simulator. The PWHT cracking susceptibility test was performed at 650℃, 700℃ and 750℃, and it can be judged that the lower the reduce of area, the

MICROSTRUCTURE AND WELD METAL MATCHING EFFECTS ON HEAT AFFECTED ZONE TOUGHNESS. The effects of the microstructural features of the coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) on fracture behaviour and toughness properties were investigated in under-

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As such, heat input, voltage and travel speed of both electrodes, along with three main cold wire parameters, were correlated with the geometry of the weld and HAZ, i.e., aspect ratio (AR), semi-penetration ratio (SPR), reinforcement area (RA) and CGHAZ area, dilution and the microhardness of the WM and CGHAZ.

The present paper investigated the relationship between low temperature impact toughness and microstructure of bainite in coarse-grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) and intercritically rehazed CGHAZ (ICCGHAZ) of an offshore engineering steel from both the microstructure morphological and crystallographic aspects. In this work, six groups of samples simulated CGHAZ and ICCGHAZ were


test procedure development to evaluate pipe properties (especially CTOD properties) at HAZ in girth welded portion. •API-1104 does not cover the test procedure to evaluate base metal properties at HAZ. •API-RP-2Z covers this area but the recommended welding conditions is deferent from the field girth welding of pipe line constructions.


Jan 02, 2016 · This is stuff I learned over 10 years ago in college and never practiced. But basically, grain growth can be controlled by adjusting the cooling rate after welding. This also affects the resulting micro-structure at the joint, if you’re welding

Sep 17, 2019 · A linear relationship was established between the amounts of retained δ-ferrite and the predicted carbon depletion in the CGHAZ of each DMW. Alloy 625 filler metal generated the largest extent of carbon depletion and the most retained δ-ferrite, followed by Alloys 617, 82, and P87.

The present paper investigated the relationship between low temperature impact toughness and microstructure of bainite in coarse-grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) and intercritically rehazed CGHAZ (ICCGHAZ) of an offshore engineering steel from both the microstructure morphological and crystallographic aspects. In this work, six groups of samples simulated CGHAZ and ICCGHAZ were

鉴于此,本文采用热模拟技术、工程测试手段和显微分析方法,研究了焊接线能量和预热温度对x80管线钢粗晶热影响区(cghaz)的夏比冲击韧度的影响规律,并分析了其原因,从而推荐出最佳工艺参数。. 基于434个网


Oct 30, 2015 · The results reveal that the fracture toughness of the simulated CGHAZ in the HTP steel is superior to that of a lower Nb, Ti microalloyed pipeline steel grade. Toughness was related to the subtle difference in the bainitic HAZ microstructure and most importantly a difference in austenite grain size.

BibTeX @MISC{A_effectof, author = {Xinjie Di A and Dan Xu B and Yongchang Liu C}, title = {Effect of cooling rate on microstructure of simulated CGHAZ for

The acquired thermal histories and the CGHAZ hardness at the thermocouple locations were evaluated to quantify the tempering efficiency in each welding procedure. The weld thermal histories with peak temperatures between 500°C, assumed as the minimum tempering temperature, and the base metal Ac1 temperature were considered as tempering thermal

Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) is applied to stress relieve the F22/625 dissimilar metal weld (DMW); the coarse-grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) hardness is kept lower than 250HV as required by NACE MR0175/ISO 15156. However, the PWHT promotes the build-up of carbon at the F22/625 interface and forms a new crack susceptible region.

Physical weld simulated coarse grain heat affected zone (CGHAZ) specimens of HY 85 steel with heat inputs 15, 22, 50 kJ/cm were prepared by thermo mechanical simulator. Impact toughness was determined at test temperatures from room temperature to


154/Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels knowledge of what properties are required. Con- sideration must be given to the environment (corrosive, high temperature, etc.) and how the component will be fabricated (welded, bolted, etc.). Once these property requirements are es-